Lightweight (Reverse) Fuzzy Extractor with Multiple Referenced PUF Responses

TitleLightweight (Reverse) Fuzzy Extractor with Multiple Referenced PUF Responses
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsGao, Y., Y. Su, L. Xu, and D. C. Ranasinghe
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
Date Published2019

A Physical unclonable functions (PUF), alike a fingerprint, exploits manufacturing randomness to endow each physical item with a unique identifier. One primary PUF application is the secure derivation of volatile cryptographic keys using a fuzzy extractor comprising of two procedures: i) secure sketch; and ii) entropy extraction. Although the entropy extractor can be lightweight, the overhead of the secure sketch responsible correcting naturally noisy PUF responses is usually costly. We observe that, in general, response unreliability with respect to a enrolled reference measurement increases with increasing differences between the in-the-field PUF operating condition and the operating condition used in evaluating the enrolled reference response. For the first time, we exploit such an important but inadvertent observation. In contrast to the conventional single reference response enrollment, we propose enrolling multiple reference responses (MRR) subject to the same challenge but under multiple distinct operating conditions. The critical observation here is that one of the reference operating conditions is likely to be closer to the operating condition of the field deployed PUF, thus, resulting in minimizing the expected unreliability when compared to the single reference under the nominal condition. Overall, MRR greatly reduces the demand for the expected number of erroneous bits for correction and, subsequently, achieve a significant reduction in the error correction overhead. The significant implementation efficiency gains from the proposed MRR method is demonstrated from software implementations of fuzzy extractors on batteryless resource constraint computational radio frequency identification devices, where realistic PUF data is collected from the embedded intrinsic SRAM PUFs.